Thomas Messenger’s third and final pipe coupling patent (No. 1873/4001) entitled “Improvements in pipe joints and in the couplings thereof” was submitted 5th December 1873 and sealed on 2nd June the following year.
The following is an extract from the patent application:-
The first part of my Invention relates to flexible pipes or tubes, such for instance as india-rubber, garden, fire, or brewers hose.
A perfectly tight joint is formed by the insertion in the inner orifices of the tubes, of a. double and cylindrical metal. Cone piece, the conical ends being pressed closely into the ends of the flexible tubes pipes by screwing the couplings together, which couplings may be in two or more parts, and when screwed home the joint is perfectly hermetical.
When the tube is to be attached to water or other cocks, stand pipes, jets, horse singers, portable gas lamps, and other similar purposes, then a single cone is employed, which cone forms part of the article to which the tube is attached.
A good joint may also be formed by means of a male and female screw, with a fast or loose ring pressed on packing or its own material by a spiral wire arranged inside the tube, and dispensing in this case with the cone, or a metal ring or tube may be passed up inside the tube to resist the pressure from without when screwing down the packing.
The second part of my Invention relates to metal, glass, and other pipes and tubes suitable for pumps, sanitary pipes, waterclosets, urinals, surgical instruments, and so on, as well for connecting solid rods of any dimensions. The two ends of the pipes where the joint is to be formed are funnel-shaped, and round the ends or necks of the funnels elastic washers or packings are placed, like sockets are then passed up the pipes, the orifices at the bottom of the sockets being just large enough to admit the pipes so that when they reach the washers and the funnel-shaped ends are brought in contact by screwing, the pressure brought to bear upon them is exercised on the washers or packings, which are consequently spread, and filling up all interstices produce a perfectly tight joint.
This principle can also be applied to pipes having plain ends or otherwise prepared instead of being funnel-mouthed, or can be applied to purpose made pipes having either one spigot or two sockets, as occasion may require.
Screw bolts and nuts, or their equivalents, may in like manner be substituted for the male and female screws for effecting the purpose.
Having now described the nature and objects of my Invention I will here explain its mechanical details by aid of the accompanying Drawings.
Fig. 1 is a plan, and Fig. 2 a side elevation of the socket part of a coupling with hose or pipe, the dotted lines showing the cylindrical metal cone piece a applied thereto; Fig. 3 is a plan, and Fig. 4 a side elevation of the spigot part of the same coupling and which screws into the socket part Fig. 2. One end of the cone a is fixed by pressure in the flexible tube b and the joint is made perfectly heretical by screwing the couplings c together, for as it is gradually screwed home the pressure on the cone a increases in an equal ratio, forcing it into the upper and lower tubes, so that a perfectly closed joint is thus formed.
Fig. 5, 6, 7, and 8 illustrate my improved couplings for metal, glass, and other pipes and tubes, forming the second part of my Invention. In this case the ends of the pipes d where the junction is to be formed are funnel-mouthed or shaped, and round the necks elastic washers or packings are placed, the sockets f are then passed up the pipes, and the orifices at the bottom of the sockets being no larger than requisite to receive them the washer e or packings cover the apertures, and on screwing the couplings together the funnels being brought in contact exercise a pressure on the washers or packings causing them to spread and so fill up all interstices and thus form a tight joint. Fig. 6 represents the funnel-mouthed end of the pipe with washer in detail which is inserted in the socket part of Fig. 7.
Fig. 9 shows the same principle of the cone connection applied to a water or other cock; in this case a single cone is employed and forms part of the cock, the flexible hose fits on the cone-shaped end of the cock, and the collar or socket being run over it is screwed to the tap.
Fig. 10 shows the same principle as applied to a T or other shaped metal junction, three-way tap or any number of branches for directing fluids, gas, steam, or hot air, either by metal or flexible pipes or tubes.
Figs. 11, 12, and 13 represent the application of the single cone joint to fire engine and other fittings, a metal collar or socket g, Fig. 11, is passed over the hose h and then screwed on the cone which forms one end of the standard, Fig. 12; when the collar is screwed home the conical end i of the standard expands and tightens the hose over it and so forms a tight joint.
Fig. 13: is a metal spigot collar or ring shown in section and threaded to screw into the socket j of the standard; it is bevelled inside to allow of the end of the hose being opened or spread for the reception of a metal ring; the collar is then screwed up having the hose firmly attached to it by means of the internal ring, and the joint is made by a leather washer or other packing being screwed up between the fillet on the metal collar and the edge of the socket on the standard.
Having thus described my Invention what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is, the coupling of pipes by means of the screw sockets, and the double or semi-conical cone pieces herein described together with the funnel couplings, both acting on packings or washers, so that on the couplings being screwed together either the cones (double or single) or the funnel-mouthed pipes pressing on the packings or washers expand them in suchwise that the couplings being home, in either case a perfectly hermetical joint is formed. I also reserve to myself the right to apply the principle to any purpose to which it may be applicable, in the manner and for the purposes precisely as herein set forth and as illustrated in the accompanying Drawings.
The patent was not renewed following the initial three-year protection period.