1873

Unsurprisingly the fire was reported in a number of gardening magazines, including The Garden Magazine[1], The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener and Country Gentlemen[2] and The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, who reported it on 4th January:

According to a local report, one of the most destructive and rapid conflagrations ever known in Loughborough took place early on Thursday morning, December 19, on the premises of Mr. T. G. Messenger, Horticultural Builder, High Street. Two fire brigades, under Capt. Hodson, were quickly on duty, and an immense volume of water flowed from all quarters, but such was the rapidity of the devouring element that it was found impossible to save any portion of the spacious premises, or the materials therein. Every effort was then made by the fire brigades to prevent communication with the ad- joining buildings, in which they were successful, or the loss of property would have been most fearful. Part of the walls of the workshop fell upon the back premises of Mr. Greenwood, the King’s Head Hotel, the roofs of which were burnt. A large quantity of corn was fortunately got away, or Mr. Greenwood’s loss would have been much greater. The whole of Mr. Messenger’s workshops, with the machinery, materials, and men’s chests of tools, were reduced to a mass of ruins, nothing but the lower parts of the walls remaining just to show the ground plan of the premises. The loss must be great, but is partially covered by insurance. Distressing as the effects of the fire have been, it is some consolation to learn that the workmen, whose chests of tools have been sacrificed, will not suffer much through loss of time, as temporary premises have already been taken to carry on the business, and the new workshops will be pushed on with all possible speed. The origin of the fire is at present unknown. The principal loss is in the very large stock of prepared woodwork ready for erection, all being painted ready for sending off. Fortunately the bulk of Mr. Messenger’s dry timber was stowed in other parts of the town, and thus saved from the general wreck—a provision which Mr. Messenger or the loss would have been much more severe.

 

Advertisement, The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette on 24 May 1873

 

Public Subscription

In January local businesses pulled together and ran a public subscription with the aim of replacing Messengers’ workers’ tools. Subscriptions could be made to either Messrs Middleton and Co., The Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Banking Co., or to The Pare’s Leicestershire Banking Co., Loughborough.

As a result a series of subscription lists appeared in the Loughborough Advertiser over the following few weeks. The first list appeared on 16th January[3]: -.

 

Messrs. Cartwright and Warners[4], Loughborough

£10 10s. 0d.

Messrs. Middleton and Co[5], Loughborough

£5 5s. 5d.

S. W. Clowes[6] Esq., MP, Woodhouse Eaves

£10 0s. 0d.

Mr W. Moss. junr[7], Loughborough

£1 0s. 0d.

Messrs. Woodward, Clarke and Co., Loughborough

£2 2s. 0d.

Mr Barber[8], Hatfield

£2 0s. 0d.

Mr Thomas. Corder[9], Bryn glas, Newport

£3 3s. 0d.

Messrs. James. Harding and Sons[10], Mill Street, Loughborough

£1 10s. 0d.

Messrs. John Mannel and Son, Sheffield

£1 1s. 0d.

Mr Friend[11], Margate

£1 0s. 0d.

Messrs. Story, Witty and Co.[12], Hull

£0 10s. 0d.

Mr Steel[13], Sheffield

£5 0s. 0d.

Mr Pease[14], Esq., MP, Darlington

£2 0s. 0d.

Messrs. Deane and Kickorish[15], Loughborough

£2 2s. 0d.

W. Perry Herrick Esq[16]., Beaumanor

£5 0s. 0d.

Messrs. Fisher and Holmes. and Co[17].

£2 2s. 0d.

 

The second list appeared a week later[18]:

 

Amount of subscription already received

£54 5s. 0d.

Venerable Archdeacon Fearon[19]

£1 1s. 0d.

W. Paget[20] Esq.

£3 3s. 0d.

Saml Stone[21] Esq.

£2 2s. 0d.

W. J. Woolley[22] Esq.

£5 0s. 0d.

Chas. Winn and Co.

£1 1s. 0d.

Anonymous

£0 10s. 6d.

Mr Thos. Clarke

£1 0s. 0d.

Entertainment at Town Hall

£8 8s. 0d.

Mr E. Clarke

£2 2s. 0d.

Revd. W. H. Lee

£0 10s. 6d.

Mr Thomas. Bailey[23]

£0 10s. 6d.

R. Wade Sons. and Co

£2 0s. 0d.

Messrs. Logart and Co.

£2 2s. 0d.

Mr W. Chester[24]

£0 5s. 0d.

W. Perks. and Co.[25]

£2 2s. 0d.

Wearmouth Crown Glass. Co.[26]

£0 10s. 0d.

Mr Seth Needham[27]

£0 10s. 0d.

Miss. Strichland

£5 5s. 6d.

Colonel Packe[28]

£5 0s. 0d.

Mr Griggs

£0 10s. 0d.

Mr E. Earp[29]

£1 0s. 0d.

Mrs. Hole, Quorn Lodge

£1 0s. 0d.

 

The third list was. published on 20th February 1873[30]

 

Amount of subscription already received

£99 19s. 0d.

Mr H. Robinson, Stourbridge

£3 0s. 0d.

Mr Michael[31], Highgate

£1 1s. 0d.

Messrs. J. Smith and Son[32], Derby Road

£1 1s. 0d.

Revd. A. Egan[33]

£0 10s. 0d.

Mr Joseph Till[34]

£1 0s. 0d.

Messrs. J. Taylor and Co.[35]

£2 2s. 0d.

MC

£1 0s. 0d.

J.D. Craddock[36] Esq.

£1 1s. 0d.

Messrs. T. and A. Marshall[37]

£1 1s. 0d.

 

The donation of £2 2s. 0d for E. Clarke should have been E. Cooke, Star Foundry Company

The final list appeared in the Loughborough Advertiser on March 6th, 1873 and the subscription was wound up on March 12th.

Amount of subscription already acknowledged

£113 5s. 0d.

Mr German[38], Borrowash

£3 0s. 0d.

 

 A grand total of £116 5s. was donated.

In addition to the public subscriptions a “Penny Readings[39] show was held in the Victoria Room of the Town Hall on Friday 17th January, which raised £8 8s. 0d : –

PUBLIC NOTICE

THE NEXT ENTERTAINMENT in connection with the PENNY READINGS, will be held in the VICTORIA ROOM, TOWN HALL, on FRIDAY, January 17, 1873, when the proceeds will be devoted to the Benefit of the Working Men who have sustained heavy losses by the Late disastrous FIRE at Mr. Messenger’s Horticultural Works.

A. EDDOWES ESQ., IN THE CHAIR

The following ladies and gentlemen have consented to assist: – Revd. O. Glover[40], Revd. W. H. Lee[41], H. Deane[42], Esq., C Charnock, Esq., Messrs H. Potter[43], G. Harding, Hull, Taylor, W. Harding, N. Harding, Mrs. Bryans, Mrs. Wieldt[44], Miss Bagnall, and Miss Gibson

tickets and further particulars may be obtained from Mr. H. Potter, Church gate; or from Messrs W. and N. Harding, Mill street.

Front Seats, 1s.; Back ditto, 6d

Door open at Seven, to commence at Half-past.

 

Redevelopment

Instead of simply re-instating his High Street works, Thomas Messenger took the opportunity to re-design and update the factory. This no doubt took both longer and a great deal more effort, but would have allowed him to re-arrange the site to take account the change in business operations over the previous few years, with the expansion of the horticultural and heating businesses. However, the redevelopment of the site was completed within a few months and the site was back in production by May, a fact acknowledge an advertisement of his which appeared in The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette on 24th May 1873:-

“Begs to inform his numerous Patrons and the Public generally, that since his recent disastrous fire he has erected new, more extensive, and commodious works, fitted with the best steam-power machinery, for the construction; of Horticultural Buildings in wood or iron, plain or ornamental, of any required dimensions. T. G. Messenger is now, therefore, in a position, from his great facilities and experience, to carry out with dispatch and in the best manner, at moderate cost, the orders with which he may be entrusted……”

In addition to the High Street site, Thomas Messenger also occupied a site off Conery Passage, Sparrow Hill in Loughborough. According to the Sun Fire insurance inventory for 1875 appears to have been an old factory, although in 1873 he was using it as a wood storage area. Naturally Thomas Messenger would probably have tried to utilise the Sparrow Hill site as a temporary workplace and this might have been the reason behind him submitting plans in April 1873, for “alterations of premises” in Sparrow Hill[45].

 

 

In April, a small dispute arose between Messenger’s insurer, the Sun Fire Insurance’s Loughborough representative, John Smith & Son[46], and the Local Board over the fee charged by the Board for the hoses pipes, etc., used whilst fighting the fire[47].

Sun Fire Office Advertisement – 1881

At the time the High Street factory was valued at about £180 per acre, which appears significantly higher than some of the other valuations in the town which varied from £25-£76 per acre[48].

A plan[49], probably for insurance purposes, of the revised layout of the High Street site exists for 2nd August 1873. It identifies all the essential functions required for the horticultural building and heating business, with one noticeable exception, there is no reference to a furnace.

 

Thomas Messenger’s High Street Works showing functional layout

 

The following list relates to the annotated 1883-4 Town plan of the site (see above):-

A Cottage
B Stable
C Engine House
D Chimney
E Men’s Mess Room
F Glass Roof Over
G Smith’s Shop with Painters Shop over
H/J Open Shed with Joiners Shop over
I/N/O Sheds
K Cart-way
L Boiler Makers Shop
P Office
Q Thomas Messenger’s Value Shop
R Gate
S Gangway Over

 

RHS Grand Provincial Show

Despite the fire, Thomas Messenger continued to exhibit at both a national and local level.

At the RHS Grand Provincial Show held at the Royal Victoria Park, Bath, from 24th to 28th June, he displayed a number of his products including a covered peach wall, a span roof conservatory, a vinery and his modified patent boiler “which affords peculiar facilities for the removal of sediment — a most important matter in economical heating”[50].

Thomas Messenger appears to have had strong competition with at least twelve other firms displaying their horticultural wares., including Mr. Parham, of Northgate Works, Bath and Oxford Street, London; Messrs Wheeler, Humphreys and Co., Nottingham; Messrs T.H.P. Dennis and Co., Anchor Works, Chelmsford; Messrs Cranston and Luck, Birmingham; Messrs Tuck and Pike, City Metal Works, Bath; W.H. Lascelles, of the Finsbury Steam Joinery Works, Bunhill Row, London; Mr. E. Lloyd, Grantham; N. Voice, Horley, Surrey; Mr. Ormson, King’s Road, Chelsea, London: Mr. Boulton, Norwich; Mr. M.E. Horley, Toddington, Dunstable; Mr. Rendle and several others. Interestingly Mr. Ayres was not present, with his imperishable greenhouses.

Predictably, there was no boiler trial at Bath, which may have been one contributory reason for the lower attendance. Those that did exhibit included Thomas Messenger and his triangular tubular boiler; Messrs J. Weeks & Co.; Messrs Jones & Rowe, Worcester with their Witley Court Boiler; Mr. Barlow with his tubular boilers; Messrs Tuck & Pike, with their patent Excelsior; Mr. Edwin Lumby, of Bath and Trowbridge, with his patent Excelsior boiler; Messrs, Diplock & Co., of Bath and London with numerous saddle boilers; The Thames Bank Iron Co., with a large assortment of boilers, including the gold medal boiler received at Birmingham the previous year.

It appears that Thomas Messenger did not win any prizes, with that for best horizontal tubular boiler being awarded to Messrs T.H. Dennis and Co.

 

Competitors’ Advertisements

 

Pipe Coupling Patent (1873/4001)

To view the patent Click here (Opens a new tab)

Workload and Customers

According to the record books, the fire appears to have had little material effect on either the number of clients, potential clients, orders or estimates.

 

Country County Dublin Town/Village Customer
England Berkshire Wokingham Marquis of Downshire
  Cheshire Ashton Hayes Thomas Philip Parr
  Cheshire Lymm Morland Crosfield
  Cumberland Scaleby All Saints’ Church
    Whitehaven Congregational Church & Schools
  Derbyshire Ashbourne Miss Child
    Ashgate Mrs. Sarah Ann Barnes
    Brailsford R. Whittaker
    Chesterfield Charles Carrington
    Derby Thomas Clarke
    Duffield Robert Harvey
    Morley Charles Schwind
    Norbury Samuel William Clowes
    Spital Edwin Mason
    Spondon Colonel Drury
    Turnditch Robert Whittaker
  Devon Ottery St. Mary Sir John Henry Kennaway
  Durham Wynward Marchioness of Londonderry
  Kent Lamberhurst William Courtenay Morland
  Lancashire Carnforth John Hebden
    Hurst Green Stonyhurst College
    Manchester G. & W. Yates
    Morecambe Charles Waller
    Southport Southport Winter Gardens
    Winmarleigh Colonel John Wilson-Patten
  Leicestershire Ashby-de-la-Zouch Mr. Stubbs
    Hinckley Samuel Davis
    Leicester John Stafford
    Leicester Rev. A. Hill
    Leicester Samuel Stone
    Loughborough George Russell
    Loughborough James Harding & Sons
    Loughborough John Thomas Goodacre
    Loughborough Police Courts
    Loughborough The Star Foundry Co. Ltd.
    Loughborough William Byerley Paget
    Netherseal Netherseal Church
  Leicestershire Osbaston Alfred Cox
  Lincolnshire Syston Sir John Henry Thorold
    Thonock Lady Bacon
  Middlesex London D. Brown
    London John Wills
    London Zephaniah King
    Twickenham Mrs. Herron
  Norfolk Garboldisham Cecil Thomas Molyneux Montgomerie
  Northamptonshire Northampton J. Wetherell
    Thorpe Malsor Revd. George Edmund Maunsell
  Nottinghamshire Annesley Rev. Clement Howard Prance
    Arnold Duke of St. Albans
    Colwick Saul Isaac
    Mansfield H.J. Greenhagh
    Mansfield Rev. R. Rawlins
    New Basford W. Walker
    Nottingham Henry Sulley
    Nottingham J. Adams
  Oxfordshire Heythrop Albert Brassey
    Middleton Stoney Earl of Jersey
  Rutland Barleythorpe Earl of Lonsdale
  Shropshire Shrewsbury William Didwell
  Staffordshire Burton upon Trent Mr. Hodson
    Enville Earl of Stamford & Warrington
    Longdon Green Thomas Bale
    Newton Solney John Gretton
    Newton Solney Mr. Hodson
    Walsall Walsall Independent Chapel
  Surrey Buckland Dr. Dyce Duckworth
    Sutton Sir John William Cradock-Hartopp
  Warwickshire Birmingham Perks & Co.
    Coventry New Free Library
    Easenhall Washington Jackson
  Westmorland Kendal James Meldrum
  Yorkshire, East Riding Driffield James M. Jennings
    Kingston-upon-Hull Dossor, Nelson & Weddall
  Yorkshire, West Riding Hatfield A. Barker
    Rotherham Charles Bingham
    Rotherham Clement Beatson Clark
    Rotherham James Yates
    Sheffield Frederick Thorpe Mappin
    Sheffield George Bassett
    Sheffield J. Smith
    Sheffield John Newbould
    Sheffield Mr. Smith
    Sheffield Thomas Wilson
    Sheffield Ward & Payne
    Shipley Hustler Whitehead
    Thornhill Capt. Joshua Cunliffe Ingham
  Unknown Unknown Duke of Grafton
Ireland County Dublin Rush Sir Roger Palmer
Norway   Oslo Mr. Malthe
Wales Cardiganshire Gogerddan Sir Pryse Pryse
  Denbighshire Wrexham Dr. Davis
    Wrexham William Low
  Merionethshire Dinas Mawddwy Sir Edmund Buckley
  Monmouthshire Malpas Thomas Cordes

 

Geographically, the number of clients from the north of England fell, as did those from the south, whilst those from the adjacent counties (Leicestershire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire) doubled. Those from combined area of Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Rutland, Northamptonshire, Warwickshire and Staffordshire rose to over fifty per cent. One effect of the fire appears to have been the arresting of the trend for declining numbers of a more regionally localised clientele seen over the previous six years. Indeed the numbers of clients from this area remains more or less constant at around fifty per cent for at least the next four years.

The total number of orders and estimates fell by less than ten per cent, but whilst well above the level for 1871 it was still significantly down on those for 1870. Those for horticultural structures rose to just under twenty per cent; those for horticultural heating fell by half; those for horticultural structures and heating fell slightly to under forty per cent; those for non-horticultural heating rose again to over fifteen per cent.

One of the more noticeable aspects of the year was that twenty-five customers placed more than one order with the firm, an unusually high number.

 

J. Adams

In January, Mr. J. Adams of No. 6, Pelham Crescent, The Park, Nottingham, ordered a replacement heating system and the fitting out of an existing forcing house. This was followed in August by a new heated 24ft. by 12ft. 6in. forcing house. In October, Mr. Adams’ gardener, Mr. Gravel, ordered slatted wooden staging, totalling 45ft. in length.

 

Mrs Sarah Ann Barnes

Mrs Sarah Ann Barnes, was the widow of Edmund Barnes, who died in 1870[51] and lived at Ashgate House, Ashgate, Derbyshire, about three miles west of Chesterfield. The residence, built in the mid-to-late 18th century on the site of an earlier house was considerably enlarged in the 19th century. Following the death of John G. Barnes in 1858[52], his trustees offered the property for sale[53], when it was described as having pleasure grounds, a deer paddock, extensive gardens, hothouses, orchards, yards, etc. The Barnes family were local landowners and colliery proprietors.

In June 1873, Sarah Ann Barnes ordered, through her gardener John Adkin, a set of top ventilation apparatus for opening a 33ft. length of 10 lights. Around October, Mrs Barnes followed the original small order by a significantly larger purchase in excess of £170. There were two houses, firstly a new 3oft. by 12ft. heated span roof plant house, fitted out with two 29ft. by 4ft. 3in. and one 3ft. by 3ft. 6in. iron and slate stages; secondly, a replacement heated forcing pit, which included two 30ft. by 7ft. 9in. roofs. The heating system for the two houses included a new boiler, 74 yards of 4-inch, 16 yards of 2-inch heating pipes and 56 cement joints. There appears to have been several modifications to the heating system resulting in an additional £13 15s. for an extra row of pipes and additional troughs pipes in the plant/stove house.

The 1887 Ordnance Survey map shows three glasshouses in the garden to the north of the house. An additional structure appears on the 1898 map, whilst only three appear twenty years later. By 1966 the House was being used as an annexe to Chesterfield Royal Hospital and the Ordnance Survey map shows just two greenhouses. In 1988 the house opened as a hospice offering specialist palliative care unit for the people of North Derbyshire. Today, all traces of the greenhouses have been removed.

 

Thomas Carrington

Three orders were placed by Thomas Carrington J.P. of Holywell House, Holywell Street, Chesterfield and one from Charles Carrington at the same address.

 

Holywell House, Chesterfield – 1878 Town Map

The first order, in April 1873, was for a rectangular 4oft. by 20ft. conservatory with small projecting porch, cresting and three finials. It was erected against an existing building, a small distance from his residence, to which it was linked by a curved fernery corridor, about 7ft. 6in. wide.

The second order, in August, was to provide cresting to the fernery and the third, in early October provided a new partition in the fernery.

The last order, provided both a curved (29ft. by 2ft. 6in.) and two straight slate and iron stages for the vinery. Together with wiring, in a diamond pattern, along the whole of the back wall of the conservatory.

 

Holywell House, Holywell Street, Chesterfield

 

 

Samuel William Clowes

Samuel William Clowes[54] was a conservative politician and MP for North Leicestershire from 1868 until 1880. He originally lived at Woodhouse Eaves, in Leicestershire, where in 1866 Thomas Messenger quoted for a heated 35ft. by 16ft. partitioned span roof range, capable of being easily dismantled, if required.

Around 1872 Samuel Clowes moved[55] to Norbury Manor, Norbury, Derbyshire, which he had just had built for himself. The same year Messenger built a number of horticultural buildings in the kitchen garden across the road from the Manor.

In February 1873, Samuel Clowes ordered a curved roof conservatory with gable, presumably as part of his new residence. The order was apparently placed as early as July 1872, The conservatory and the new residence were heated using a No. 10 boiler, 136 yards of 4-inch, 4 yards of 3-inch pipes, 39 yards of 2-inch heating pipes and 88 cement joints,. There were also three 4ft. 6in. long coil radiators composed of fifty-two 2in. pipes and one 6ft. long coil radiator, again composed of fifty-two 2in. pipes. In April, several orders were received, including alterations to the heating system in the conservatory installing an additional 28 yards of 4in. pipes, 87 superficial feet of grating over the pipes and changes to some of the casement opening down to the floor. Also included was the fixing an old radiator coil in the back hall requiring 6 days of a fitter and labourer’s time.

 

Saul Isaac

In early March, Thomas Messenger received an order from Saul Isaac of Colwick Hall, Colwick, Nottinghamshire, for a heated 115ft. by 18ft. partitioned lean-to range.

Saul Isaac was a businessman, originally in partnership with his brother, Samuel Isaac, in a business supplying materials to the Confederate States during the American Civil War[56]. Between 1874 and 1880 he was Member of Parliament for Nottingham and was the first Jew elected as a Conservative[57].

In June 1870, he took on the lease of the Clifton Collieries, near Nottingham[58]; the same year he moved to Colwick Hall, taking on a seven-year lease at an annual rent of £368, from the owner, John Chaworth Musters of Annesley Park, Nottinghamshire[59]. The lease included a kitchen garden, keeper’s house, buildings and lands at Colwick. The conditions of lease included a covenant allowing him to pull down and rebuild the stabling, and to make improvements to the mansion house; keeping the mansion house and other buildings in good repair; to paint external wood and ironwork in 1871 and 1874; to keep the garden and grounds in good order.

In 1873 Saul Isaac ordered a 115ft. long heated partitioned range, including vineries and a peach house. The range housed a number of small stages, the longest of which was only 16ft. long. Part of the range was to be used to grow strawberries as Messenger supplied a 16ft. long by 5ft. wide stepped strawberry stage. It appears to have had an iron walkway along the complete length of the structure. Options were given for covering the entire roof in 21oz. glass (£13 12s.) and for making the whole structure portable (£15 12s.). The range was heated using a No. 10 boiler, with 296 yards of 4-inch, 31 yards of 3-inch, 50 yards of 2-inch heating pipes and 220 cement joints. At the same time Messenger installed a heating system into the coach house, with 34 yards of 4-inch, 12 yards of 2-inch heating pipes, utilising the boiler installed to heat the range. The total cost, inclusive of cartage and scaffolding was £535.

Towards the end of April, Thomas Messenger received two further small orders. Firstly, to supply and install galvanised tank and a conservatory pump with various suction and supply pipes. Secondly, to provide a water supply to an old lean-to house.

At the end of the seven-year lease Saul Isaac left Colwick Hall and was succeeded by Captain Douglas Lane who only resided there a short time before moving to Wollaton Hall, Nottingham[60].

Exactly where the 115ft. long range was located is unclear. Neither the 1884 nor subsequent Ordnance Survey maps show any greenhouses within the immediate vicinity of the Hall. It is possible that Saul Isaac took up the option of making the structure portable and simply took it with him.

Lean-to Range of Vineries built for Saul Isaac, Colwick Hall – Messenger & Co. 1877 Catalogue

 

Police Courts, Loughborough

 

 

In early October, Thomas Messenger installed a heating system into the police cells at the Police Courts, in Loughborough, which were located directly behind his workshops.

 

Old Magistrate’s Court and Police Station – 1883 OS Map

The heating system, using an existing boiler, was modest in size consisting of 47 yards of 2-inch pipes, forty-eight 2-inch cement joints that required 4 man-days for a fitter and labourer to fix. The price of £17 included 3s. 3d. for carriage, for a distance that must have been less than 200 yards.

Presumably it was found that the old boiler could not cope with the additional pipes as less than a month later, when architects, Messrs Dain & Smith[61] ordered a No. 4 boiler at a cost of £9, with Thomas Messenger taking the old boiler in part-exchange.

 

References:

  1. The Garden – an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches; January 4th 1873.

  2. 2nd January 1873, page 7.

  3. The Loughborough Advertiser, 16th January 1873.

  4. Spinners and patent angola and merino hosiery manufacturers, Clarence Mills, Nottingham Road, Loughborough.

  5. Bankers of Market Place, Loughborough.

  6. Samuel William Clowes was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1866, 1872 and 1873.

  7. Joiner, builder, contractor and chimney top and sanitary pipe dealer, 39 Baxter Gate.

  8. The surname is actually Barker and he was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1871, 1872 and 1873.

  9. The surname is actually Cordess. He lived at Brynglas House and became an MP in 1874.

  10. Joiners, cabinetmakers, upholsterers, and furniture dealers, of 3 Mill Street.

  11. James T. Friend of Northdown House, Northdown Park, Cliftonville, was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1871.

  12. Storry, Witty and Co., were paint manufactures and suppliers to Thomas Messenger.

  13. Mr. H. Steel of Westbourne, Sheffield, was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1871.

  14. Joseph Whitwell Pease (1828-1903), of Hutton Hall (built 1866/7), MP for South Durham (1865-1882) and then Barnard Castle (1885-1903). He was created a baronet of Hutton Lowcross and Pinchinthorpe in 1882 He was owner of coal and ironstone mines in Durham and Yorkshire and a Director of North Eastern Railway. He was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1869, 1870, 1871 and 1872.

  15. Solicitor, of 30 Market Pace and 14 Walbrook, London, E.C.

  16. Herrick was a large landowner, at the time living in Beaumanor Hall (of red brick in Jacobean style built between 1842-53. It was designed by architect William Railton (who also designed Nelson’s column)).

  17. Messrs Fisher and Holmes were Nurserman and Seedsman, of Handsworth Nurseries, Sheffield and were customers of Thomas Messenger in 1869.

  18. The Loughborough Advertiser, 23rd January 1873.

  19. Archdeacon of Leicester, Hon. Canon of Peterborough and Rural Dean and Rector of All Saints’ Church, Loughborough.

  20. J.P., living at Southfield, Leicester Road, Loughborough.

  21. Samuel Stone was a solicitor in a partnership of Stone, Paget and Billson. He lived at Elmfield House, Stoneygate Road. Leicester and was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1867, 1868, 1869 and 1873.

  22. Land agent, surveyor, valuer and agent., Loughborough

  23. Tailor, woollen, draper, hatter and outfitter, Market Place, Loughborough

  24. Linen and woollen draper, silk mercer, and mourning warehouse, andc., High Street, Loughborough

  25. Messrs W. Perks and Co., were plumbers and brass founders of Birmingham and a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1867, 1868 and 1873.

  26. Glass manufacturers of Low Southwick, Sunderland. Presumably they were suppliers of glass to Thomas Messenger.

  27. Hosiery Manufacturer, Queen street, Loughborough

  28. Colonel George Hussey (1796-1874) lived at Prestwold Hall, Prestwold, Leicestershire, was a JP, Deputy Lieutenant of Leicestershire and an MP. He was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1869 and 1872.

  29. Baker, andc, Swan Street, Loughborough

  30. The Loughborough Advertiser.

  31. Mr. Michael was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1871.

  32. Maltsters, timber and slate merchants, Derby Road, Loughborough

  33. Revd. Andrew Egan was a priest at the Roman Catholic Church, Loughborough.

  34. Builder and contractor, Wards End, Loughborough

  35. Mr. Taylor was a Bell-founder at the Bell Foundry, Cobden Street and Freehold Street, Loughborough. He was also Thomas Messenger’s father-in-law.

  36. John Davys Cradock (1845-1921) lived at Quorn Court, High Street, Quorndon, Leicestershire; he was Lord of the Manor of Loughborough and Captain of Prince Albert’s Own Leicestershire Yeomanry Cavalry.

  37. Ironmonger, Marketplace, Loughborough

  38. Possibly Mr. G. German, a large land owner living in the Manor House, Borrowash. He was a customer of Thomas Messenger in 1872.

  39. These were a common form of entertainment consisting of readings, with music, etc. Originally the price of admission was a penny and they commenced in 1850s

  40. Revd. Octavius Glover, Rector, All Saints’ Church, Loughborough.

  41. Curate of Emmanuel Church, 4, Burton Street, Loughborough.

  42. Henry Deane, Leicester Road, Loughborough

  43. Herbert Potter, auctioneer and valuer, 20 Fennell Street, Loughborough.

  44. Ulius Wieldt, Baxter Gate, Loughborough.

  45. The Loughborough Advertiser, 10th April 1873.

  46. John Smith & Son, who were located at No. 5, Derby Road, Loughborough, were timber, slate, corn, deed cake, and manure merchants, wharfingers and maltsters as well as agents for the Sun Insurance Co.

  47. The Loughborough Advertiser, 10th April 1873.

  48. The Return of Owners of Land and the Transformations of the 1870s – Trans. Leicestershire Archaeological and Hist. Soc., Volume 84, 2010

  49. Leicestershire Record Office Ref: DE2121-288-1-23

  50. The Garden, 26th July 1873.

  51. The Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, 5th February 1870.

  52. The Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, . Supplement, 3rd April 1858.

  53. The Sheffield & Rotherham Independent, 29th January 1859

  54. (1821-1898)

  55. He also had a London town house at No 5 Park Street, Mayfair.

  56. Samuel Isaac; Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

  57. The Times, 25th July, 1908, page 16.

  58. Nottinghamshire Guardian, 3rd June 1870.

  59. The University of Nottingham, Manuscripts and Special Collections: Ref ChM/D/8.

  60. Nottinghamshire Guardian, 4th October 1878.

  61. No. 21, St. Martin’s, Leicester.