These four miscellaneous patent applications were submitted between 1877 and 1891 and only two were approved. The first in 1877 relating to chimney improvements; the next in 1887 regarding transplanting trees; the final two in 1891, one involving improvements to kitchen ranges and the other, which was approved, was a design for door locks and latches.
Improvements in Chimneys forming a combined smoke and ventilating flue (1877/4057)
On 1st November 1877, he submitted a patent request No. 1877/4057 entitled “Improvements in Chimneys forming a combined smoke and ventilating flue”. The objective of this invention was:-
“to form a combined smoke and ventilating flue in one, made of fire-clay, brick, clay, concrete, iron, or other suitable material .This appliance, made in suitable lengths, is built in as the building proceeds, or is formed in the brickwork, stone work, or otherwise, and terminates in an ornamental pot at the top, or plain pipe, or equivalent.
This is accomplished by the employment of two tubes, one within the other, the smoke ascending in the inner tube and the air up the outer one, or the cavity formed between the two. By this means warm air may be brought into a room above another where there is a fire, the bad air being taken out up a perfect ventilating shaft.by means of junctions with an air duct.
By this means of construction fresh air can be admitted into an apartment or room either from above the house, downwards from the exterior, or from the basement upwards, or from any other convenient position; or it may be made to act as an inverted siphon.
The fresh air being brought in contact with the heated flue creates a natural ventilation. The house remarks apply to the bad being carried off from a room with great facility”.
Provisional protection was awarded in January, 1878. Whether any of these chimneys were actually built is unknown.
Transplanting Trees, etc. (1887/3182)
It was not for another ten years before he submitted another non-mainstream related patent application and on this occasion the application (No. 1887/3182) was for an invention for helping with transplanting trees. No detailed record of this application exists as it was unsuccessful.
Improvements in kitchen ranges, and in the fittings thereof (1891/1959)
The next application (No. 1891/1059), entitled “Improvements in kitchen ranges, and in the fittings thereof” was submitted on 21st January 1891.
Again, his application appears to have been unsuccessful.
Improvements in and in connection with Combined Locks and Latches for Doors and the like (1891/3693)
His last patent application was submitted on 30th November, 1891 and accepted 2nd January 1892.
The patent (No. 1891/3693) was entitled “Improvements in and in connection with Combined Locks and Latches for Doors and the like”. The purpose of his invention was to reduce the number of moving parts to a minimum whilst retaining the functionality of the standard types of locks, including a drawback lock, mortice-lock, rim-lock, rim-latch, or night latch, etc. The design had only one bolt, very few working parts, resulting in a very small footprint. He dispensed with the spindle and attached knobs on either side of the door, substituting it with a specially constructed key, which actuates the lock or latch-bolt from the outside.
In the application, he made four claims for his invention. Firstly, its simplicity; secondly, the latch actuating mechanism was by means of a simple lever-action key, whilst be only be removed when released; thirdly, it possessed a novel self-adjusting key-retainer and lever-protector, with gaps, ward and gills; fourthly, it had a revolving chambered bolt-catch.
The fill specification follows:
The design and construction of the lock is to make it answer the purpose of a drawback lock, mortice-lock, rim-lock, rim-latch, or night-latch etc. having one main bolt only, and very few working parts, occupying a small space, and consequently manufactured at little cost. I dispense with the spindle and knobs attached to it on either side of door as usually employed, and substitute for it a key specially constructed, which actuates the lock or latch-bolt from the outside, and if desired from inside also when used as a latch. By the use of a very simple shield when the key is inserted into the door and brought to act upon the lock lever, the key itself becomes locked, and though free to act upon lock and latch-bolt, it cannot be removed from door when it is closed, it being necessary to release it on the inside. 1f it he desired to prevent the door being opened from outside, it can be so secured inside that though the key be in the lock the door cannot be opened nor the key itself removed. The key can be made in great variety to prevent duplicates, and it would be very difficult if not impossible to pick the lock; in attempting to do it the picker itself would become locked. By a very slight alteration the lock can be fixed either right or left hand. It is not at all likely to get out of order. The lever and shield are both counterbalanced by weights or sometimes by springs, or a combination of both. When it is desired to prevent the door being opened from inside as well as outside, I construct the lock with an additional lever and bolt, so that when the key is removed from lock the door cannot be opened from either side.
I would now describe my invention more particularly as follows:-
I construct of cast or wrought iron, brass, or other metal or material, a lock and latch—case of any desired size or shape of a plain or ornamental character, suited to strength and design for architectural and other requirements, one side of which case is removable to give access to internal works in the usual way. In one end and near to the bottom of case I make an aperture to receive the lock and latch—bolt, and through which it works into lock—staple or striking—plate in usual way.
This lock and latch bo1t which may be of iron or brass or a combination of both for a portion of its length, corresponds with size and shape of aperture; the other end of lock and latch-bolt is of less dimensions and provided with a slot, pins, or their equivalent to be actuated by lever, spindle or other appliance.
I construct a lever with two arms of bout equal length, the junction of which describes about a right angle working on pin or axle near its angle, which pin or axle is secured to ore carried by both sides of lock-case; this lever being similar to a crank in shape. I fix or construct a portion of space formed by the arms, a weight, in order to restore the lever into position when released.
The end of one arm of this lever is formed in a fork shape, between the sides or prongs of which fork the lock and latch-bolt passes
In the bolt is fixed or constructed paps, pins, studs or their equivalents at such distance from each other as to just give space for the forked prongs of arm to pass between them, So that the lever when moved actuates the lock and larch-bolt; or instead of the lock and latch—bolt and lever being separate, I sometimes make the bolt in conjunction with lever, so that the lever and bolt are in one piece. The end of other arm of lever is specially constructed to be operated upon by the key and is so cut or fitted as to leave a small nib only, to suit the particular design of key and as this nib may occupy any position in the thickness of the lock the key may be varied to such an extent that it would be very difficult to unlock the lock with a key not made for it
In order to make it most difficult to pick the lock, and there being no friction or wear upon either key or nib, I reduce this nib to the smallest dimension, and it may consist of iron, brass, or an insertion of steel, agates or other material.
The key, being constructed with wards fitting counterpart wards in lock in the usual way, is also provided with one or more projections corresponding with the position of nib made in the lever-arm, and when slightly turned is brought in contact therewith, lifting arm out of resting position and moving horizontally the other arm, which operating upon the paps, pin or the equivalents before described actuates the lock and latch-bolt. On releasing the key the lever-arm falls back into position by its own weight or may be forced back by springs, or both may be employed. As in my invention the key is used as a substitute for the ordinary spindle and knobs for actuating the latch, and more frequently required on the outside of door, I construct a shield or guard, which, when the key is inserted and turned partly round, removes from its resting position, allowing the key to come in contact with nib of lever-arm.
When this is effected the shield or guard is carried back by a weight attached thereto, or part of same, spring or its equivalent, and the key itself becomes locked so that it cannot be removed until the shield or guard is brought into a given position from the inside of door, so as to release the key.
This is effected by moving and holding in one hand a lever, thumb-bit, stud, or its equivalent attached to or part of the shield, while the key is removed with other hand. I also construct the shield or guard with a flange or projection on its upper edge having in it a small gap directly opposite to nib on lever-arm, and through which the projection or projections of key made for the lock is allowed to pass, but through which no other key can pass even though it passes the wards in lock, and is consequently prevented from acting upon lever-arm; the shield or guard being thus constructed, also effectually prevents the lock being picked. For operating the lock inside I provide a pin or spindle to pass through slot of lock or latch-bolt before described, and. secured or carried by both or one side of case; but preferable both sides; this pin thus acts as guide to bolt. I sometimes attach knob, handle or its equivalent to this pin or spindle on the inside or one side of door only, and construct slots in lock-case and fit to pin sliding-plates etc. whereby I unlock the door from inside without in any way affecting the key on the outside; or the key may be constructed so that it may actuate the lock from the inside as well as outside; or I substitute for this a pin, knob, handle or its equivalent attached to lever, which, being drawn back or lifted, actuates the lock and latch-bolt in the same way as if acted upon by the key, and it is virtually the same if lever and lock and latch-bolt be in one piece as before described. I sometimes provide a fall-stop, bolt, lever, slide or its equivalent, so as to lock or fix the said knob, handle, or its equivalent, or to so fix the lever that it cannot be acted upon by key, or unlocked or opened from outside by any means, nor the key removed from lock.
When it is desired to secure the door that by removing the key it cannot be opened from either side, I construct the key with a small additional wing with wards, or cut to any desired design, and also construct in lock-case, working on guides, a small bolt consisting of one or more parts or gills, and a simple lever carried by pin secured to lock-case, one end of which actuates the small bolt and the other end is actuated by the removal of key from lock, so that when the key is released and turned opposite key-hole, the small bolt is shot over main lever and thus secured till key is again brought into operation.
I construct the lock so that a very slight adjustment makes it suitable for a door opening right or left hand.
I so construct the lock that when the key is removed the door only requires closing to lock it, and for this purpose in conjunction with or separate from lock, a knob, pull, or its equivalent made of brass, iron, wood or other material, or a combination of materials may be fixed on centre or other desired position of door, and may be of plain or ornamental character, or if desired the door may be: closed by means of the key itself.
I sometimes construct in connection with this lock a frictionless revo1ving catch, bolt-box or drum, having four chambers to receive the lock and latch-bolt so arranged and fixed that when the door is closed it strikes one side of one of the four chambers carrying it forward into position, when the other side of chamber, as the drum revolves, encloses the bolt. The bolt-box or drum is constructed on the ratchet principle, and the box containing same fitted with a stop working on a pin and spring, so as to allow drum to revolve freely one way till it gets into position but is prevented by the stop from turning back, so that the revolving catch or bolt-box becomes as rigid and fixed as an ordinary lock-staple or striking-plate. This revolving catch is also applicable to ordinary locks or latches, and I sometimes use in connection with my invention the ordinary lock-staple, striking-plate, or their equivalent.
When it is desired to use my invention as a latch to be secured on one side only, as for bedrooms, w.c. etc. I fix a screw or cover over the lever or stud connected with shield, in order to prevent children or mischievous persons removing the key. If desired this screw or cover may be removed at pleasure, and the lock used as before described; or the latch may be fitted with spindle and knobs or other appliances to actuate the latch and. dispense with key, but retain bolt, lever or its equivalent to secure the door inside.
When it is desired to use my invention as a lock to be secured on outside only as for cupboards, closets etc. I sometimes dispense with shield or guard as before described, thereby enabling me to construct a lock of less dimensions, and at much less cost.
I consider the following to be important points in this invention:-
First: – It being a combination of lock and 1atch, one of the two bolts usually employed is dispensed with, likewise the ordinary latch-spindle, knobs, and consequent internal works usually employed.
Second: – The key being so fixed in position that though it may be outside door it cannot be removed from lock till it be released from the inside.
Third: – Being able to lock or unlock the door on the inside whether the key be in the lock on the outside or not; or if so desired to not be able to unlock the door from either side without key.
Fourth: -The great difficulty in substituting another key or picking the lock.
Fifth: — With slight modifications it can be adapted for various purposes for which locks are used, and for either right or left hand doors.
Sixth: -It can be constructed either with springs or weights, the latter preferred.
Seventh: – There are very few working parts; is very strong, and not liable, to get out of order, and produced at small cost.
Eighth: – It occupies but small space compared with locks generally in use.
Ninth: – It is suitable for all doors hung vertically or as ordinary