Cisterns and Water-Closets

His first patent set-up the framework for his closet design with the other three adding further design refinements and improvements.

It is difficult to determine how commercially successful his water-closet inventions were, or indeed whether they were successful, commercially or otherwise. One could probably surmise that having successfully submitted four patents over a five-year period, Thomas Messenger presumably believed that it was worth his time, effort and expense.