The patent No. 1879/2608 which was submitted on 27th June 1879 and entitled “Improvements in Machinery or Apparatus for Pressing or Moulding Bricks, Tiles, or Other Similar Articles”. The application was successful and sealed on 27th December.
The following is an extract from the patent application: –
My Invention relates to machinery or apparatus used for pressing or moulding bricks, tiles, or other articles of .plastic or semi plastic material.
It has for its object improved methods of constructing and arranging such machinery or apparatus so that it is simple, easily worked, and very powerful, quick in its action, and capable of being readily moved from place to place when desired, whilst it is cheaper and more economical in use than machinery for similar purposes as heretofore ordinarily constructed and used.
In order to put my Invention in operation I make a strong frame of iron, wood, or partly of iron and partly of wood, or of other suitable material, which may be provided if desired with wheels of any ordinary kind for the purpose of readily moving the machine from place to place as may be required, and upon this frame I make or attach two or more strong standards of iron or other sufficiently strong
Material to the upper part of which I fix a table or horizontal frame upon which the finished brocks or other articles may be delivered, and upon which are supported and held the boxes and guides, and other appliances by which the bricks or other articles are made, as hereinafter described.
Near the bottom of the machine l arrange a strong longitudinal shaft.revolving in bearings formed upon or attached to the Standards, or to the frame , or to both 1 cause this shaft.to revolve at the proper speed, which may vary according to the articles which are to be made by means of suitable toothed wheels and pinions keyed upon shafts revolving in bearings formed upon or fixed to the machine, and set in motion by manual power, or by steam or other convenient power by means of driving belts and pullies, or by an steam or other engine connected directly to the driving shaft, and forming part; of the machine. Upon the table already described at the upper part of the apparatus I fit and fix firmly one or more strong boxes or moulds of metal or other suitable material, and of a. size appropriate to the bricks or other articles which are to be pressed or moulded. Each of these boxes or moulds is open both above and below, and where more than one are used I arrange them in line at convenient distances apart, and immediately above the principal shaft.of the machine, which is sat in revolution in the way already described.
Directly beneath each box or mould I make upon the revolving shaft.a, crank of short stroke fitted with a connecting rod or link, the upper and of which is jointed to the lower end of a strong hollow bar, which is thus made to work vertically up and down in guides formed upon or fixed to the standards, or upright guide bars fixed to the table above and to the frame below.
In the upper end of the hollow bar, arranged as just described, I fit a second bar which can move freely up and down in the first bar, but either together with or independently of the latter. The upper end of this inner bar carries and is attached to a. strong plunger or plate, which when the bar rises enters and fits the lower open end of the box or mould above, within which it accordingly rises and falls for a short distance when the shaft.is made to revolve. The plunger or plate is provided with a. collar or boss beneath, which rests upon the upper end of the hollow bar.
I prefer to make the length of the connecting rod or link described easily adjustable by means of a screw and nuts, or in any other convenient way, so that the vertical movement of the plunger or plate may be adjusted if desired, and between the upper and of the hollow vertical bar and the collar or boss beneath the plunger or plate I arrange one or more moveable or adjustable rings or washers of steel or other metal, or of india rubber, leather, or other sufficiently elastic material or of two or more of such substances combined, so as to take up partly any very great strain, and so reduce the risk of fracture when the brick or other article is being pressed. Each of the boxes or moulds described is provided with a very strong cover, either sliding horizontally in grooves or guides, or turning at one of its ends or sides upon a. strong hinge or its equivalent, the material which is to be pressed being forced against this cover when the plunger below rises. I arrange each of these covers so that it is held in its place when closed by two or more catches or bars connected with a cam or cams upon the main shaft.of the machine in such a way that after the plunger has reached the highest point of the stroke given to it by the crank and connecting rod, as above described, the catches are released, and in the case where the cover is made to slide; it is caused then to rise slightly from the box or mould, and then to slide off horizontally in order that the pressed brick or other article may be raised from the mould and removed, and an impressed one substituted for it in the in the latter, after which the cover is returned to its place and drawn down tightly against the top of the mould by the action of the cam. If the cover be hinged it; is thrown open instead of being made to slide. In order to deliver the finished brick or other article after the cover has been removed in either of the ways described, I connect the plunger or plate with one or more bars passing down outside the hollow vertical bar, and at the lower end of this bar or bars I arrange a frame working in or between corresponding vertical guides formed upon or attached to the base or standards and table of the machine, and to this frame so arranged I fit a friction roller or stud which fits and is acted on by a cam of suitable shape fixed upon the main revolving shaft.of the machine.
The accompanying Drawing is in illustration of my Invention. Figure 1 is an end view of a machine constructed according to my Invention; Figure 2 is a transverse section of part of a similar machine; and Figure 3 is a longitudinal section of a machine having two boxes or moulds. The same letters of reference indicate similar parts in the several Figures. A is the frame of the machine shewn supported on wheels B in Figure 1 ; C, C, are vertical standards fixed to the frame and carrying the table D, to which are fixed the boxes or moulds E, E, in which the bricks are pressed; F is a shaft.revolving in bearings G, G, and shewn driven by hand by toothed wheels, fly wheel, and handle at H. Connecting rods I, I, are driven by cranks upon the shaft.F, and are jointed to the hollow bars K, K, which work in the guides L, and-have fitted within them the boxes M, M, which carry at their upper ends the plunger or plates N, N, having collars or bosses beneath them, under which adjustable washers at O can be placed ; P represents a strong cover to the boxes or moulds E, E, the cover sliding horizontally in guides in the bars R, R, the lower ends of which fit in cams S, S, upon the shaft.F, by which the bars R, R, are made to rise and fall slightly when required; T is an adjustable lever, the upper end of which is connected to the sliding cover P, whilst its lower end is operated by another cam upon the shaft.F. The plungers or plates N, N, are connected by means of the bars U, U, with the frames V, V, which work in the guides W, W, and are provided with friction rollers X, X, actuated by the cams Y, Y, upon the shaft.F.
The action of the apparatus is as follows :—The main shaft.F being set in motion at the proper speed by the toothed wheels and handle H, when one of the cranks and plungers N is at the lowest point of its stroke, an attendant inserts into the box or mould E an impressed brick or other article, and the cover P is then caused by the lever T to slide in the guides at the upper ends of the bars R, R, until it covers the mould, against which it is then forced and held down, when the bars R, R, are depressed by the cams S, S. As the plunger then ascends it forces up the hollow bar K, together with the inner bar M and the plunger N, which compresses the material in the mould against the cover P. When the crank has reached the top of its stroke the cams S, S, raise the bars R, R, sufficiently, and the lever T then causes the cover P to slide horizontally along the guides. At this moment the cam Y commences to operate and lift the inner bar M and the plunger N, and with them the pressed brick or other article until the latter is entirely free from the mould or box E, and it is then removed by hand or by mechanism actuated by the machine itself, which forces it forward to the place where it is to be delivered, or to a travelling band of the usual kind, by which it is conveyed to any desired distance. A fresh impressed brick or other article is then deposited in the box or mould E upon the plunger N, which descends with it into the box by its own weight, or which may be drawn down by a suitable cam. The plunger never descends entirely out of the box or mould, and the bricks or other articles are consequently of a superior quality, their edges being sharp and good.
Instead of using the arrangement of the hollow bar having an internal bar carrying the plunger working within it, I sometimes make the outer bar itself carry the plunger or plate, and capable of rising until the latter has reached the top of 0 the box or mould, and I arrange two cams or a double com so that the bar and plunger are first raised until the brick has been compressed, and then remain stationary until the cover has been removed, when they are again raised for the remainder of their stroke.
Where clay or other material of a semi-plastic character is to be operated upon, I prefer to use the following method of arrangement :—l make the cover of the mould or box slide in guides, and in its front part I form a chamber, and I connect it to the main shaft.of the machine by cams and levers in such way that at one part of the revolution of the shaft.the chamber is made to slide under a hopper or vessel containing the material whence a charge passes into it. The cover is then carried forward and the chamber deposits its charge in the box, the cover moving on until it has taken the place of the chamber in time to receive the pressure from the upward thrust of the plunger.
Instead of the cam described for actuating the plunger to deliver the goods or other articles after they have been pressed, I sometimes make the plunger pass into the hollow vertical bar through a water tight joint, and I admit water under pressure through a flexible pipe into the hollow bar at the proper time for the purpose of raising the plunger.
The water may be admitted and discharged by a suitable valve operated by a cam upon the main shaft.of the machine, and sometimes a piston may be formed upon the plunger bar within the hollow bar, upon each side of which piston water may be admitted alternately for the purpose of raising and lowering the plunger at the proper times.
In order to free the upper edges of the boxes from the clay or other matter I provide the cover with a scraper, wiper, brush, or other equivalent, so that whether the cover slides direct on to the top of the box or is drawn down as before described, it may bed upon the top of the box very tightly; and to clean or oil the underside of the cover I adopt similar means.
Having now described my Invention and the manner in which it is to be performed, I claim, the revolving crank or cam actuating a hollow bar in combination with the second interior adjustable bar, having a plate or plunger at its upper end fitting the box or mould in which a brick or other article is to be pressed, and actuated by a second cam or by hydraulic power, substantially as described and shown in the Drawing.
Also, the cover to such box or mould sliding in guides upon bars or frames which are made to rise and fall vertically by cams upon the driving shaft, substantially as and for the purpose described and shewn in the Drawing.
Also, the method of causing the cover to the box or mould to move laterally when required, by a lever operated by a cam upon the driving shaft, substantially as and for the purpose described and shewn in the Drawing.
Also, the general construction and arrangement of the apparatus, substantially as I described and shewn.
The patent was sealed on 27th December 1879. ↑