Commercial Nurseries

Commercial Nurseries were another important source of work for Thomas Messenger; firstly, they were often repeat customers and secondly, their orders could be substantial.

William Barron, a renowned nurseryman and landscape gardener, placed at least eight orders, of which at least two were on behalf of Barron’s own customers.

 

J. Pearson, Chilwell Nurseries

One interesting order came from John Royston Pearson[1] of Chilwell Nurseries, Chilwell, Nottinghamshire who was a well-known and respected nurseryman renowned for his orchard houses used for peaches and nectarines. He was also an author of several books including in 1866 “Vine Culture under Glass” and “Hints on Orchard Houses”. In a visit report in 1868, it was stated[2]: –

“Here are to be seen orchard houses worthy of the name; orchard houses at one grand, commodious, substantial, simple and useful”.

The report went on to say: –

“That orchard houses will be more and more wanted now that their construction and the cultivation of the trees are becoming so well understood, is certain; also that the finest, and best, and cheapest, taking lasting qualities into consideration, that have yet been erected in this country are those of Mr. Pearson, equally a fact which no one can gain say who has ever seen them. They were, I was informed, erected by Mr. Foster, of Beeston. The largest house is 100 feet long by 30 feet wide……….”

The reference refers to Robert Foster, who was originally a joiner and builder in Beeston, less than a mile away from the Chilwell Nurseries. Later the two families were to combine to form Foster and Pearson Ltd., based at Robert Foster’s original site in Brown Lane, Beeston. The firm, who were horticultural builders and iron founders, were to go on to become serious rivals to Messenger & Co. They subsequently morphed into The Beeston Foundry Co. Ltd., who went on to manufacture the well-known Robin Hood range of boilers.

In March 1869, less than a year after the visit report appeared, John Pearson approached Thomas Messenger regarding a heated span-roof structure. The price of £145 10s. for the heated 100ft. by 13ft. house, which appears not to have been a standalone structure as the components included two identical roofs, two identical ends but only one upright, measuring 100ft. by 3ft. The intention might have been to connect it to the existing 100ft. long orchard house. Whilst there is no obvious indication that this new house was indeed another orchard house, Thomas Messenger only charged 1s. per superficial foot for the framing, compared with the normal rate at the time of 1s. 4s. for a standard greenhouse style structure. Another indication of it possibly being an orchard house is that there is no mention of either ventilation apparatus or any accessories and fittings. The heating system appears to have been a standalone specifically designed to heat the 100ft. house consisting of an unnumbered boiler, probably a No. 6, together with 213 yards of 4-inch heating pipe and 100 cement joints. The price excluded brickwork, which was undertaken separately by Mr. Moss, of Loughborough.

Why John Pearson should choose Thomas Messenger for this one house is a mystery as he had all his others built by Robert Foster. It is doubly strange since in April 1868, in a letter published in The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener and Country Gentlemen Magazine[3] he bestowed the virtues of an X boiler, made in Dalkeith stating that:

…….is, in my opinion, the best boiler out; the under surface is nearly as good as the dome of the saddle, and the side flues present a good surface above the flame, whilst from their size they will admit air enough for a long flue; in other respects it is as faulty as others, as it must be surrounded and raised on brickwork. I have for years urged Mr. Foster, who builds my houses, to bring out a boiler of his own invention, which is intended to remedy all these defects; but he has preferred to improve the X boiler, as being the least trouble to himself. In this I do not think he has consulted his own interests, but he has made the X boiler as nearly perfect as possible. Two castings containing water, and of course connected with the boiler, come down to the firebars, and a box of water is also provided for the flames to play upon, and in to which the pipes bring the return water direct, at a lower level than the boiler; the fire is thus surrounded entirely by water, and no bricks are exposed to its action. This improved boiler is now at work in my new Orange house, 100 feet by30, containing about 1,300 feet of 4-inch pipes, and I could almost cook a chop on them. I am satisfied it is twice as powerful as any boiler I have, whilst it bums much less fuel in proportion to its work. I should be happy to show it to anyone interested.

Another visit to the nursery, by a J. Douglas in 1876, recorded that[4]:

There is one thing greatly in Mr. Pearson’s favour, and that is the quality of the glasshouses. There are a dozen or more large span-roofs, and as many of a smaller size adapted for Pelargoniums; and they are built to last, not tumble-down sheds that would not last a decade, but they are such as would stand for fifty years, and the workman ship is a credit to any builder. There are also some improvements in their construction worthy of being universally adopted. One of these is in the system of glazing. The glass, instead of being out in a straight line, is rounded like a cheese-cutter or the blade of a turfing iron; this causes the rain to run down at the middle of the glass panes, and quite prevents the water from soaking down between the glass and sash bars. The undersides of the bars are also constructed with a runnel from the top to the bottom of the house, and all condensed water is carried down this runnel to the wall-plate, so that there is no drip either from condensation or rain. The top ventilator is moved by machinery, which is worked by a wheel and axle outside the houses. A man can move the whole top ventilation of a house 100 feet long with apparent ease, and the apparatus when opened to its fullest extent prevents any rain from reaching the plants underneath. The ventilation and glazing adopted by Mr. Pearson is as perfect as any that I have ever seen.

……………………………..

There is also a very large span-roofed conservatory which contains a fine lot of healthy plants, the most useful amongst them being the Azaleas, of which there is a superior collection………………..

At the time of the visit, John Pearson was ill and the nursery was being run by his son and not long afterwards Mr. Pearson passed away[5]. It appears that the firm of Foster and Pearson was formed not long afterwards.

 

Messrs Fisher, Holmes & Co., Handsworth Nurseries

Handsworth, now a suburb of Sheffield, lies about 4 miles east of the city centre. The Handsworth Nursery existed prior to 1837[6] and by 1855 occupied a large area to the west side of Handsworth Road stretching up to Bowden Housteads Wood[7]. The site existed up to at least 1935; however, by 1954 it had been levelled and replaced, at least in part, by a housing estate and a Government Training Centre.

In the 1830s, Messrs Fisher, Holmes & Co., not only occupied the nursery but also had an outlet at No. 12, King Street, moving to No. 1, Market Place, Sheffield in 1839[8]. The firm was a partnership between various members of the Fisher and Holmes families; in 1830, it was between Charles Fisher, George Fisher and Thomas Holmes[9]; two years later between George Fisher, James Fisher, John Holmes and Edward Holmes[10], which lasted until 1850[11]. This was followed by a partnership between Edward Holmes and Charles Fisher, which lasted until October 1868, when Edward Holmes left with his place being taken by Henry Sibray[12]. Edward Holmes immediately went to run the Whittington Nursery between Lichfield and Tamworth (see below).

 

The Sheffield & Rotherham Independent, August 24, 1839

Despite Edward Holmes leaving the firm and being replaced by Henry Sibray (1837-1894), the firm contained to be known as Messrs Fisher, Holmes & Co., up to around 1879 when they changed the name to Fisher, Son & Sibray Ltd.[13]. The firm, who were still known as Fisher, Son & Sibray Ltd., finally went out of business in 1968, by which time they had moved their headquarters to No. 32, Wilkinson Street, Sheffield[14].

In January 1869, the firm engaged Thomas Messenger to provide three estimates for heated nursery greenhouses at a target price of around 1s 2d. per superficial foot:

  1. The first estimate was for a heated 100ft. by 11ft. 6in. partitioned double span roof structure. Such was the nature of the structure that the estimate included four “hand holes for cleaning”. The boiler priced at £21 was probably a No. 10 or 11 and sized to be capable heating both this structure and an existing house. The other heating components included 208 yards of 4-inch, 42 yards of 3-inch, 12 yards of 2-inch heating pipes and 100 cement joints. The whole was priced at £286, which included 26-man-days for installing the heating system, 14 for the fitter and 12 for the labourer.
     
  2. The second estimate was for lengthening and altering an existing house, including “raising it to a proper height”. It appears that it was to be lengthened to 100ft. and be 17ft. wide. The estimate of £133 included 134 yards of 4-inch, 16 yards of 2-inch heating pipes with 56 cement joints, which would hint that the existing house was probably already heated and this was additional.
     
  3. The third estimate of £35, included 136 yards of 4-inch, 36 yards of 2-inch heating pipes and 75 cement joints for heating “houses 1 and 3”.

Six months later, Thomas Messenger quoted £275 for a 100ft. by 20ft. heated span roof structure, with cresting, shelving and staging. Again, no boiler was specified, although it did include 200 yards of 4-inch, 10 yards of 3-inch heating pipes, together with 90 cement joints.

The Ordnance Survey map for 1855 shows four or five greenhouses on a NW/SE alignment adjacent to the Handsworth Road and almost opposite Park Road. By 1895, these had been replaced by a much large set of greenhouses, together with several long sets of frames and/or pits, on the same alignment. It is likely that one or more of these greenhouses are by Thomas Messenger. If for no other reason than in 1876 Messrs Fisher, Holmes & Co., ordered horticultural buildings for two clients from Messenger & Co.

 

Handsworth Nursery – 1892 OS Map

The first on behalf of Charles Wright of Rock Mount, North Anston, which lies between Rotherham and Worksop, was for a 40ft. by 12ft. 9in. heated lean-to vinery, which they subsequently increased to 42ft. by 13ft. 9in.

The second a 19ft. by 9ft. lean-to, without heating, for a Mr. B. Cartledge, who was probably Mr. Benjamin Cartledge, a veterinary surgeon, who in 1881 was living at No. 45, Norfolk Road, Sheffield[15].

 

The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette, 30 January 1864

 

E. Holmes, Whittington Nursery

Following the termination of Edward Holmes partnership with Charles Fisher at the Handsworth Nurseries in October 1868, he moved to Whittington, which lies approximately 3 miles south east of Lichfield, Staffordshire. Here he set-up the Whittington Nursery, about ¾ mile west of the village, probably on land owned by his uncle John Holmes, who had also previously also been a partner in the firm of Messrs Fisher, Holmes & Co.[16].

Having retired, John Holmes presumably moved to Whittington where in 1861[17] he was living at Whittington Hill, known locally as ‘The Hill’, with his wife and daughter, farming 46 acres, employing two men and a boy. By 1871[18], he had retired from farming, describing himself as a retired nurseryman, living with his daughter, sister in law and niece.

John Holmes died in 1879[19] and the farm was taken over by John Booth, who in the 1881 census was farming 23 acres. Thus, it is likely that the other 23 acres had been used for the nursery and it is possible that John Holmes may have actually started the nursery himself.

Similar to Handsworth, Whittington nursery only a very small area, at the north of the site, was eventually covered by greenhouses. It appears that Edward Holmes and his family lived adjacent to the nursery in Nursery House, which later became known as Ellfield House. It is probable that Edward Holmes had the house specifically built for him and his family. The property, which today is an elegant 5-bedroomed residence with an accompanying 2-bedroomed cottage standing in 4 acres of land, was on the market in 2012 at a guide price of £1.1 million.

Here in 1871[20] Edward Holmes was living with his wife, four sons, six daughters and four live-in servants. There were at least ten nursery gardeners and five nursery labourers living on the village at the time of the 1871 census, with a number of them lodging with local families. Presumably, they all worked for Edward Holmes, which implies that he must have expanded the business rapidly. One of his workers, presumably an important member of the staff was living in the gate lodge to the Nursery house, then known as Nursery Lodge, later known as Ellfield Lodge.

Ten years later, in 1881[21], Edward Holmes was living with his wife, seven daughters, three sons and one live-in servant. He was still running the nursery employing 4 women, 35 men and boys.

The move to Whittington was probably planned well in advance of him officially leaving the partnership of Messrs Fisher, Holmes & Co. Because in September, a month before the official announcement, Thomas Messenger presented him with an estimate for a number heated horticultural buildings, comprising of two vineries, one stove house, one propagating house and three plant houses. It appears that the estimate was too expensive, as a revised estimate was developed removing one vinery and the stove house, reducing the estimate from £696 down to £422. This reduction removed 3,205 superficial feet of framing, 743 superficial feet of stages, 170 superficial feet of iron walkway; along with a sizeable amount of heating material including 124 yards of 4-inch, 37 yards of 2-inch pipes, 100 cement joints and reducing the installation time by 20 man-days.

 

Whittington Nurseries – 1884 OS Map

A little later, Edward Holmes purchased 480 superficial feet of glass lights. In the following February he requested an estimate for a 100ft. long house with heating. The estimate of £117 included 134 yards of 4-inch, 8 yards of 2-inch heating pipe and 60 cement joints, although no boiler. This was followed up a month later by Edward Holmes purchasing a 110ft. by 11ft. heated partitioned structure, with staging (2 frames each 110ft. by 4ft.) and 28 sets of ventilation apparatus. The total price for all the components amounted to £169 3s. 8d, to which Thomas Messenger added £7 6s. 8d. giving a total of £176 10s. 6d. This was then rounded down and offered to Edward Holmes at £176 10s., with both parties finally agreeing a price of £170, The heating apparatus included a No. 9 boiler, 120 yards of 4-inch, 4 yards of 3-inch, 50 yards of 2-inch heating pipes and 80 cement joints.

By 1872[22] Edward Holmes with a retail outlet in Tamworth Street, Lichfield. was being described as a nurseryman, seedsman, and florist and acting as an agent for Shanks’s patent lawn mowers.

However, the nursery was relatively short lived as in October 1888 Edward Holmes offered what appears to have been the entire nursery stock for sale over a three-day period[23]. Presumably, as he was aged 76, he decided it was time to retire and none of his children was willing the take the business on. At the time of the 1891 census, he was staying with one of his daughters, at Ael-y-Bryn, Hill Terrace, Llandudno, who was running the property as a guesthouse. Also staying there was Edwards’ wife, three of his daughters and one son.

 

Whittington Nurseries sale – The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 22 September 1888

 

By 1891[24], at least part of the Whittington Nursery site was being run as a fruit and market garden by Martin Henry Ricketts who was living in Nursery House. By 1902[25], some of greenhouses have disappeared and within ten years[26], no greenhouses remained on the site, although the old bothy, probably built at the time of the nursery starting, was still standing. In 1924[27] the house, then known as Ellfield House was occupied by Lt.-Col. Joseph Arthur Crosthwaite.

By 1965[28] another small nursery had been started, later known as Ellfield Nursery, with four greenhouses having been erected to the east of the house. Another greenhouse had been built against the old bothy, which was still standing in 2007 when an application was submitted for conversion to form a dwelling[29].

 

The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette, 31 October 1868

Similar to Messrs Fisher, Holmes & Co., Edward Holmes ordered, on at least one occasion, horticultural structures on behalf of his client. In August 1869, he ordered a heated plant house costing £90 16s. for Mr. Nowell of Newark, Nottinghamshire.

 

J. Wills, Royal Exotic Nursery and Winter Garden

 

The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette, 31 December 1870

John Wills, who in 1871 described himself as an “artistic floral decorator, landscape gardener, nurseryman and seedsman[30], was born in 1832 in Chard Somerset. He first went to work at the gardens at Cricket St. Thomas, near his home[31]. Following a large variety of jobs, he settled in London in the late 1860s, eventually establishing the Royal Exotic Nursery and Floral Depot at No. 9, Sussex Place, Old Brompton in 1870[32]. Here he had a shop fronting onto Old Brompton Road, eventually adding glasshouses that were tucked in behind and completely enclosed by surrounding houses.

 

The Royal Exotic Nursery and Floral Depot – 1895 Town Plan

By 1871, he had been appointed florist and bouquetist to the Her Majesty Queen Victoria and H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, presiding over many prestigious events such as the Lord Mayor’s Banquet[33]. He also undertook floral arrangements for conservatories, balls, parties, and dinner table, bridal and opera decorations. In addition, he also offered a garden design and layout service as well as arrangements for erecting horticultural buildings, hot-water systems etc.

By early 1872 he had obtained two more outlets; the first, described as a “Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Bouquet Department”, located on Exhibition Road[34], close to the South Kensington railway station and not far from Sussex Place. The second was even closer located behind Onslow Crescent, which stood on the corner of Old Brompton Road and Sydney Place and directly opposite South Kensington station. The site, which ran parallel to Sumner Place, had a narrow frontage to Old Brompton Road with a shop at the side of No. 16 Onslow Crescent, where he lived. Having acquired the new site, he immediately started re-arranging both the Onslow Crescent and Sussex Place sites. Sussex Place became the floral depot whilst Onslow Crescent became the main site, known as the Royal Exotic Nursery and Winter Garden. The use of Winter Garden in the name was because the site had a large conservatory in the form of a Gothic nave with aisles and a gable end fronting onto the street[35]. The conservatory was probably built around 1872, possibly by the lessee[36], Charles James Freake[37] a builder and architect.

 

 

The Royal Exotic Nursery and Winter Garden was still in existence in 1916[38] but in 1935[39] the whole site, along with the houses in Onslow Crescent were demolished to be replaced by a block of residential flats, which is still extant, and. known as Melton Court

 

Site of  The Royal Exotic Nursery and Winter Garden

 

By April 1872, the Sussex Place nursery had almost 20,000 superficial feet of patent greenhouses by The Patent Imperishable Hothouse Company of Newark[40], for whom William Port Ayres was the manager (see page 72). In late 1873 a 200ft. by 12ft. forcing house had just been erected specifically for growing flowers[41]. In 1920, part of the site was occupied by a telephone exchange that was still in place in 1951[42], although later, it was replaced by a small street, known as Barnaby Place, containing a small number of residential buildings.

 

Melbourne Nursery – 1896 Town Plan

 

In October 1873, John Wills obtained another property, this time the Melbourne Nursery, near the Crystal Palace. The nursery had previously been occupied by William Lichfield, who had sold-up earlier in the year[43] having fallen into bankruptcy[44]. John Wills took on the nursery on a long lease, planning to devote it to plant and flower production with the aim of supplying his Sussex Place outlet[45]. The Melbourne Nursery, which already had almost 30,000 superficial feet of glass[46], was located on Anerley Road, between Thicket Road and Anerley Park, opposite Madeline Road. Almost immediately, John Wills erected a new 102ft. by 10ft.propagating house, with an attached lean-to forcing pit[47]. In 1879,[48] there were at least ten greenhouses on site, mainly arranged one behind the other on a north-west/south-east alignment. By 1896,[49] only five of the greenhouses appeared to be in use; whilst by 1933[50] this had improved to eight. The nursery had disappeared by 1953[51], being replaced by residential flats, known as Melbourne Court.

 

Site of  the Melbourne Nursery

 

John Wills engaged Thomas Messenger on four occasions between 1872 and 1874 and Messenger & Co. on another three occasions in 1875.

The first occasion was in December 1872, ordering a 40ft. by 16ft. extension to an existing house together slate and iron staging, shelving and heating pipes. The latter consisted of 179 yards of 4-inch, 12 yards of 3-inch, 9 yards of 2-inch pipes and 120 patent joints.

At the end of January 1873, Thomas Messenger submitted four estimates, totalling £200. The first was for a new roof measuring 144ft. by 12ft. for an existing lean-to house together with four new 11ft. 3in by 4ft. ends and partitions. The second was for a smaller house involving a new 45ft. by 12ft. roof, an 11ft. 3in, by 4ft. end and several slide ventilators. The third was for a set of heating apparatus, including 48 yards of 4-inch pipes and 24 joints. The fourth, for another set of heating apparatus, this time for a lean-to house, which included 63 yards of 4-inch pipe and 30 cement joints.

 

Sale Notice – Melbourne Nursery, The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette, 14 June 1873

The next occasion was in May when John Wills ordered £76 10s. worth of equipment for heating the 144ft. lean-to structure that Thomas Messenger had renovated earlier in the year. The apparatus included 249 yards of 4-inch, 2 yards of 2-inch heating pipes and 113 joints.

The last order for Thomas Messenger was in December 1874: totalling £375 9s. 6d. the order was for a 102ft. by 21ft. heated half-span house, with shelving and probably erected at Sussex Place. The structure appears to have been rather elaborate with internal pillars, columns and arches with cresting and finials on the roof. The heating system, exclusive of boiler, included 170 yards of 4-inch, 6 yards of 2-inch heating pipe and 75 cement joints. It appears that the structure was erected by Messenger & Co., the following March because a few additional items were charged to the client, including an additional partition and alterations to the heating system that required 3 extra man-days installation work along with an additional 14 yards of 2-inch pipe and 22 cement joints. The house was actually built 4½ inches wider than contracted, for which the client was only charged for the additional material for each end.

 

Melbourne Nursery, The Gardeners’ Chronicle & Agricultural Gazette, 18 October 1873

In September 1875, John Wills purchased a partitioned 100ft. by 30ft. span house for £424 5s. The house was actually extended by 2ft. to 102ft. prior to being built, costing an additional £7. Originally, the house was intended to be heated using 406 yards of 4-inch, 20 yards of 3-inch heating pipe and 206 cement joints, along with a No.8 boiler that had been sized to be capable of heating an additional 500ft. of 4-inch pipes. However, the heating system priced at £130 was never installed.

It appears that John Wills did not engage Messenger & Co., again although his business apparently continued to flourish. He acquired at least one more nursery, known as the Fulham Nursery, located on Fulham Road, Hammersmith and in 1880 it contained seventeen glass ranges[52]. In 1880 John Wills essentially sold out to a new company known as The General Horticultural Company, (John Wills), Ltd., formed for the specific purpose of acquiring and working his previous business. John Wills was to become the General Manager and have a seat on the Board[53]. However, the new company only lasted a few years before being forced into liquidation in 1882[54].

John Wills subsequently went into partnership with Samuel Moore Segar, trading under the name of Wills and Segar[55].

John Wills died on 13th July, 1895[56] with No. 16, Onslow Crescent becoming the residence of the Segar family until its demolition around 1935.

 

References:

  1. (1819-1876). British horticulturist, florist and author with a special interest for tulips, fruit culture and orchard houses.

  2. The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener and Country Gentlemen, 13th August 1868, page 109.

  3. The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener and Country Gentlemen, 23rd April 1868, page 308.

  4. The Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener and Country Gentlemen, 13th July 1876, page 28-9.

  5. 14th August 1876.

  6. History, Gazetteer and Directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Volume I, William White, 1837.

  7. 1855 Ordnance Survey Map

  8. The Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, 24th August 1839.

  9. The London Gazette, 27th July 1831.

  10. The London Gazette, 6th November 1832.

  11. The London Gazette, 27th September 1850.

  12. The London Gazette, 6th October 1868.

  13. The Nottinghamshire Guardian, 8th August 1879.

  14. The London Gazette, 5th April 1968.

  15. Kelly’s Directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1881; ed. by E. R. Kelly. [Part 2: Places L-Y]

  16. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 11th January 1879, Page 57.

  17. 1861 Census.

  18. 1871 Census.

  19. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 11th January 1879, Page 57.

  20. 1871 Census.

  21. 1881 Census.

  22. Kelly’s Directory of Staffordshire, 1872.

  23. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 22nd Sept 1888, page 319.

  24. 1891 Census.

  25. Ordnance Survey Map

  26. Ibid.

  27. Kelly’s Directory of Staffordshire, 1924.

  28. Ordnance Survey Map.

  29. Lichfield District Council.

  30. The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 14th January 1871, page 38.

  31. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 20th July 1895, page 78.

  32. The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 31st December, 1970, page 1726.

  33. The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 30th March 1872, page 422.

  34. The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 30th March 1872, page 422.

  35. The Smith’s Charity Estate: Charles James Freake and Onslow Square Gardens; Survey of London: volume 41: Brompton (1983), pp. 101-117.

  36. The Smith’s Charity Estate: Charles James Freake and Onslow Square Gardens; Survey of London: volume 41: Brompton (1983), pp. 101-117.

  37. Charles James Freake (1814–1884) was also a architect, patron of music and the arts and public benefactor. He was knighted in 1882.

  38. Ordnance Survey Map.

  39. The Smith’s Charity Estate: Charles James Freake and Onslow Square Gardens; Survey of London: volume 41: Brompton (1983), pp. 101-117.

  40. The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 20th April 1872, page 561.

  41. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 3rd January 1874, page 7.

  42. Ordnance Survey Map

  43. Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 14th June 1873, page 821.

  44. The Edinburgh Gazette, 9th September 1873.

  45. The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 18th October 1873, page 1398.

  46. The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 18th October 1873, page 1396.

  47. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 3rd January 1874, page 7.

  48. Town Map.

  49. Ordnance Survey Map.

  50. Ibid.

  51. Ibid.

  52. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 27th March 1880, page 391.

  53. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 27th March 1880, page 392.

  54. The London Gazette, 14th November 1882.

  55. Survey of London: volume 41: Brompton.

  56. The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 20th July 1895, page 78.